Surface Treatment for Zirconia Bonding with Resin Cement

Zirconia is polycrystalline ceramic without silica glass. The deficiency of glass component reduces chemical interaction and effect of acid etching to zirconia. Consequently, bonding to resin cement is the major disadvantage of zirconia restoration. Alternative surface treatment methods have been introduced and divided into three categories according to the bonding purpose; mechanical, chemical, and mechanical combined with chemical. Using primer contained MDP or phosphate functional monomer after sandblasting with 50 micrometres alumina at pressure of 1-2.5 bars has been widely advised for zirconia before cementation with resin cement.

  1. Miyazaki T, Nakamura T, Matsumura H, Ban S, Kobayashi T. Current status of zirconia restoration. J Prosthodont Res. 2013; 57(4): 236-261.
  2. Denry I, Holloway JA. Ceramics for dental applications: A review. Materials. 2010; 3(1): 351-368.
  3. Özcan M, Nijhuis H, Valandro LF. Effect of various surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia after thermal aging. Dent Mater J. 2008; 27(1): 99-104.
  4. Piconi C, Maccauro G. Zirconia as a ceramic biomaterial. Biomaterials. 1999; 20(1), 1–25.
  5. Guazzato M, Albakry M, Ringer SP, Swain MV. Strength, fracture toughness and microstructure of a selection of all-ceramic materials. Part II. Zirconia-based dental ceramics. Dent Mater 2004; 20(5):449-456.
  6. Garvie RC, Hannink RH, Pascoe RT. Ceramic steel? Nature. 1975; 258(8): 703-704.
  7. Manicone PF, Rossi Iommetti P, Raffaelli L. An overview of zirconia ceramics: Basic properties and clinical applications. J Dent. 2007; 35(11): 819-826.
  8. Denry I, Kelly JR. State of the art of zirconia for dental applications. Dent Mater. 2008; 24(3): 299-307.
  9. Kisi EH, Howard CJ. Crystal structures of zirconia phases and their inter-relation. Key Eng Mater. 1998; (153/154): 1-36.
  10. Kelly JR, Benetti P. Ceramic materials in dentistry: Historical evolution and current practice. Aust Dent J. 2011; 56 Suppl 1: 84-96.
  11. Kelly JR, Denry I. Stabilized zirconia as a structural ceramic: An overview. Dent Mater. 2008; 24(3): 289-298.
  12. Lawson NC, Burgess JO. Dental ceramics: A current review. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2014; 35(3): 161-166.
  13. Clarke IC, Manaka M, Green DD, et al. Current status of zirconia used in total hip implants. J Bone Joint Surg. 2003; 85(suppl 4): 73-84.
  14. Van Noort R. Introduction to dental materials. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2013: 215-230.
  15. Burke FJT. Restorative dentistry - trends in indirect dentistry: 3. Luting materials objective: To discuss the properties of currently available luting materials. 2005. p. 251-260.
  16. Conrad HJ, Seong WJ, Pesun IJ. Current ceramic materials and systems with clinical recommendations: a systematic review. J Prosthet Dent. 2007;98(5): 389-404.
  17. Özcan M, Bernasconi M. Adhesion to zirconia used for dental restorations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Adhes Dent. 2015; 17(1): 7-26.
  18. Kern M. Bonding to oxide ceramics-laboratory testing versus clinical outcome. Dent Mater. 2015; 31(1): 8-14.
  19. Dérand P, Dérand T. Bond strength of luting cements to zirconium oxide ceramics. Int J Prosthodont. 2000; 13(2): 131-135.
  20. Thompson JY, Stoner BR, Piascik JR, Smith R. Adhesion/cementation to zirconia and other non-silicate ceramics: Where are we now? Dent Mater. 2011; 27(1): 71-82.
  21. Blatz MB, Chiche G, Holst S, Sadan A. Influence of surface treatment and simulated aging on bond strengths of luting agents to zirconia. Quintessence Int. 2007; 38(9):745–753.
  22. Wolfart M, Lehmann F, Wolfart S, Kern M. Durability of the resin bond strength to zirconia ceramic after using different surface conditioning methods. Dent Mater. 2007; 23(1):45-50.
  23. Blatz MB, Sadan A, Martin J, Lang B. In vitro evaluation of shear bond strengths of resin to densely-sintered high-purity zirconium-oxide ceramic after long-term storage and thermal cycling. J Prosthet Dent. 2004; 91(4):356-362.
  24. Kitayama S, Nikaido T, Takahashi R, et al. Effect of primer treatment on bonding of resin cements to zirconia ceramic. Dent Mater. 2010; 26(5):426-432.
  25. Yang B, Lange-Jansen HC, Scharnberg M, et al. Influence of saliva contamination on zirconia ceramic bonding. Dent Mater. 2008; 24(4):508-513.
  26. Yang B, Wolfart S, Scharnberg M, Ludwig K, Adelung R, Kern M. Influence of contamination on zirconia ceramic bonding. J Dent Res. 2007; 86(8):749-753.
  27. Guazzato M, Albakry M, Quach L, Swain MV. Influence of grinding, sandblasting, polishing and heat treatment on the flexural strength of a glass-infiltrated alumina-reinforced dental ceramic. Biomaterials. 2004; 25(11):2153-2160.
  28. Zhang Y, Lawn BR, Malament KA, Van Thompson P, Rekow ED. Damage accumulation and fatigue life of particle-abraded ceramics. Int J Prosthodont. 2006; 19(5):442-448.
  29. Zhang Y, Lawn BR, Rekow ED, Van Thompson P. Effect of sandblasting on the long-term performance of dental ceramics. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2004; 71(2):381-386.
  30. Ban S, Sato H, Suehiro Y, Nakanishi H, Nawa M. Effect of sandblasting and heat treatment on biaxial flexure strength of the zirconia/alumina nanocomposite. Key Eng Mater. 2007; 330-332(1): 353-356.
  31. Kern M, Barloi A, Yang B. Surface conditioning influences zirconia ceramic bonding. J Dent Res. 2009; 88(9):817-822.
  32. Aboushelib MN. Evaluation of zirconia/resin bond strength and interface quality using a new technique. J Adhes Dent. 2011; 13(3):255-260.
  33. Casucci A, Osorio E, Osorio R, et al. Influence of different surface treatments on surface zirconia frameworks. J Dent. 2009; 37(11):891-897.
  34. Casucci A, Mazzitelli C, Monticelli F, et al. Morphological analysis of three zirconium oxide ceramics: Effect of surface treatments. Dent Mater. 2010; 26(8):751–760.
  35. Ferrari M, Cagidiaco MC, Borracchini A, Bertelli E. Evaluation of a chemical etching solution for nickel–chromium–beryllium and chromium–cobalt alloys. J Prosthet Dent. 1989; 62(5):516–521.
  36. Annamalai VE, Anantharamu BLA, Gokularathnam CV, Krishnamurthy R. Transformation behaviour of yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystals in a MetaI-cutting environment. Mater Sci Letts. 1991; 10(23):1374-1376.
  37. Paranhos MP, Burnett LH Jr, Magne P. Effect Of Nd:YAG laser and CO2 laser treatment on the resin bond strength to zirconia ceramic. Quintessence Int. 2011; 42(1):79-89.
  38. Spohr AM, Borges GA, Júnior LH, Mota EG, Oshima HM. Surface modification of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramic by Nd:YAG laser, Rocatec system, or aluminum oxide sandblasting and its bond strength to a resin cement. Photomed Laser Surg. 2008; 26(3):203-8.
  39. Akın H, Ozkurt Z, Kırmalı O, Kazazoglu E, Ozdemir AK. Shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic after aluminum oxide sandblasting and various laser treatments. Photomed Laser Surg. 2011; 29(12):797-802.
  40. Liu L, Liu S, Song X, Zhu Q, Zhang W. Effect of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on surface properties and bond strength of zirconia ceramics. Lasers Med Sci. 2015; 30(2):627-34.
  41. Ural C, KalyoncuoĞlu E, Balkaya V. The effect of different power outputs of carbon dioxide laser on bonding between zirconia ceramic surface and resin cement. Acta Odontol Scand. 2012; 70(6):541-6.
  42. Akhavan Zanjani V, Ahmadi H, Nateghifard A, Ghasemi A, Torabzadeh H, Abdoh Tabrizi M, Alikhani F, Razi R, Nateghifard A. Effect of different laser surface treatment on microshear bond strength between zirconia ceramic and resin cement. J Investig Clin Dent. 2015; 6(4):294-300
  43. Janda R, Roulet JF, Wulf M, Tiller HJ. A new adhesive technology for all-ceramics. Dent Mater. 2003;19(6):567-573.
  44. Qeblawi DM, Muñoz CA, Brewer JD, Monaco EA Jr. The effect of zirconia surface treatment on flexural strength and shear bond strength to a resin cement. J Prosthet Dent. 2010; 103(4): 210-220.
  45. Kern M, Thompson VP. Bonding to glass infiltrated alumina ceramic: Adhesive methods and their durability. J Prosthet Dent. 1995; 73(3):240-249.
  46. Derand T, Molin M, Kvam K. Bond strength of composite luting cement to zirconia ceramic surfaces. Dent Mater. 2005; 21(12):1158-62.
  47. El-Shrkawya ZR, El-Hosaryb MM, Salehc O, Mandourd MH. Effect of different surface treatments on bond strength, surface and microscopic structure of zirconia ceramic. Future Dental Journal. 2016; 2(1):41–53.
  48. Aruna ST, Balaji N, Rajam KS. Phase transformation and wear studies of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings containing various mol% of yttria. Mater Charact. 2011; 62(7):697-705.
  49. Piascik J, Swift E, Thompson J, Grego S, Stoner B. Surface modification for enhanced silanation of zirconia ceramics. Dent Mater. 2009; 25(9): 1116–1121.
  50. Sirimongkolwattana S. Metal adhesive primer. CM Dent J. 2005; 26(1-2):73-82.
  51. MDP monomer: Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc [URL of homepage on the Internet]. Tokyo. Available from: HYPERLINK “http://www.kuraray-dental.eu/scientific-area/core-technologies/mdp-monomer/http://www.kuraray-dental.eu/scientific-area/core-technologies/mdp-monomer/.
  52. Powers JM, O’Keefe KL. Guide to zirconia bonding essentials [monograph on the Internet]. Available from: HYPERLINK ftp://ftp.endoco.com/Links/zirconia_bond_guide.pdf ftp://ftp.endoco.com/Links/zirconia_bond_guide.pdf
  53. Yun JY, Ha SR, Lee JB, Kim SH. Effect of sandblasting and various metal primers on the shear bond strength of resin cement to Y-TZP ceramic. Dent Mater. 2010; 26(7):650-8.
  54. Lee JJ, Kang CK, Oh JW, Seo JM, Park JM. Evaluation of shear bond strength between dual cure resin cement and zirconia ceramic after thermocycling treatment. J Adv Prosthodont. 2015; 7(1): 1-7.
  55. Inokoshi M, De Munck J, Minakuchi S, Van Meerbeek B. Meta-analysis of bonding effectiveness to zirconia ceramics. J Dent Res. 2014; 93(4): 329-334.
  56. Xible AA, de Jesus Tavarez RR, de Arauho CRP, Bonachela WC. Effect of silica coating and silanization on flexural and composite-resin bond strengths of zirconia posts: an in vitro study. J Prosthet Dent. 2006; 95(3):224–229.
  57. Atsu SS, Kilicarslan MA, Kucukesmen HC, Aka PS. Effect of zirconium-oxide ceramic surface treatments on the bond strength to adhesive resin. J Prosthet Dent 2006; 95(6): 430–436.
  58. CoJetTM: 3M ESPE [URL of database on the Internet]. Saint Paul. Available from: HYPERLINK: “http://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/358667O/cojet-intraoral-adhesive-repair.pdfhttp://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/358667O/cojet-intraoral-adhesive-repair.pdf
  59. RocatecTM: 3M ESPE [URL of database on the Internet]. Saint Paul. Available from: HYPERLINK: “http://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/316727O/rocatectm-junior-bonding-system.pdfhttp://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/316727O/rocatectm-junior-bonding-system.pdf
  60. Bielen V, Inokoshi M, Munck JD, Zhang F, Vanmeensel K, Minakuchi S, Vleugels J, Naert I, Van Meerbeek B. Bonding effectiveness to differently sandblasted dental zirconia. J Adhes Dent. 2015; 17(3):235-42.
  61. Heikkinen TT, Lassila LVJ, Matinlinna JP, Vallittu PK. Effect of operating air pressure on tribochemical silica-coating. Acta Odontol Scand. 2007; 65(4):241-248.
  62. Blatz MB, Sadan A, Kern M. Bonding to silica-based ceramics: Clinical and laboratory guidelines. Quintessence Dent Technol. 2002; 25:54–62.

Mamanee T, Khuankaew C, Thamaneewan I, Piangsuk T, Sirimongkolwattana S. Surface Treatment for Zirconia Bonding with Resin Cement: Review articles. CM Dent J [Internet]. 2017 Jan 06 [cited 2024 Jul 15];38(1):29-41. Available from: https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=181

Mamanee, T., Khuankaew, C., Thamaneewan, I., Piangsuk, T. & Sirimongkolwattana, S. (2017). Surface Treatment for Zirconia Bonding with Resin Cement. CM Dent J, 38(1), 29-41. Retrieved from: https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=181

Mamanee, T., Khuankaew Chutikul,Thamaneewan Itthiwat ,Piangsuk Tarin and Sirimongkolwattana Siripong. 2017. "Surface Treatment for Zirconia Bonding with Resin Cement." CM Dent J, 38(1), 29-41. https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=181

Mamanee, T. et al. 2017. 'Surface Treatment for Zirconia Bonding with Resin Cement', CM Dent J, 38(1), 29-41. Retrieved from https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=181

Mamanee, T., Khuankaew, C., Thamaneewan, I., Piangsuk, T. and Sirimongkolwattana, S. "Surface Treatment for Zirconia Bonding with Resin Cement", CM Dent J, vol.38, no. 1, pp. 29-41, Jan. 2017.

Mamanee, T., Khuankaew, C., Thamaneewan, I., et al. "Surface Treatment for Zirconia Bonding with Resin Cement." CM Dent J, vol.38, no. 1, Jan. 2017, pp. 29-41, https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=181