Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review

Tooth loss is a common problem found in human beings. The challenge in replacing teeth is to restore the natural tooth appearance. Dental implants have overcome this challenge. Titanium (Ti) is an attractive material for dental implants due to its excellent properties and biocompatibility, but the grayish appearance is a concern. A process of supplying the current voltage to an electrochemical cell forming the oxide layer on metal is called anodization. Anodization is a surface modification technique that creates micro- and nano-roughness and an oxide layer on the Ti surface, improving the properties of dental implants. The higher the voltage applied to the anodizing process, the higher the anodic film thickness forms. The different thicknesses of titanium oxide (TiO2) film cause variations in refractive index and reflective index, resulting in a desired color on the Ti surface. The most useful colors for dental application have been gold (10 V), yellow (60 to 65 V), and pink (70 to 80 V) in hue. Yellow and gold hues were mostly used in restoration or abutment areas while pink hue was used for gingival areas. The purposes of this literature review are to assess the current knowledge on the anodization process of titanium and its characteristics and to provide an overview of the literature on color formation on Ti surfaces by anodization.

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Vattanasup C, Kuntiyaratana T, Rungsiyakull P, Chaijareenont P. Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review: Review articles. CM Dent J [Internet]. 2023 Jul 05 [cited 2024 Jul 15];44(2):13-21. Available from: https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=199

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana, T., Rungsiyakull, P. & Chaijareenont, P. (2023). Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review. CM Dent J, 44(2), 13-21. Retrieved from: https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=199

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana Tachakorn,Rungsiyakull Pimduen and Chaijareenont Pisaisit. 2023. "Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review." CM Dent J, 44(2), 13-21. https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=199

Vattanasup, C. et al. 2023. 'Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review', CM Dent J, 44(2), 13-21. Retrieved from https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=199

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana, T., Rungsiyakull, P. and Chaijareenont, P. "Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review", CM Dent J, vol.44, no. 2, pp. 13-21, Jul. 2023.

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana, T., Rungsiyakull, P., et al. "Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review." CM Dent J, vol.44, no. 2, Jul. 2023, pp. 13-21, https://www.dent.cmu.ac.th/cmdj/frontend/web/?r=site/viewarticle&id=199