Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review

Tooth loss is a common problem found in human beings. The challenge in replacing teeth is to restore the natural tooth appearance. Dental implants have overcome this challenge. Titanium (Ti) is an attractive material for dental implants due to its excellent properties and biocompatibility, but the grayish appearance is a concern. A process of supplying the current voltage to an electrochemical cell forming the oxide layer on metal is called anodization. Anodization is a surface modification technique that creates micro- and nano-roughness and an oxide layer on the Ti surface, improving the properties of dental implants. The higher the voltage applied to the anodizing process, the higher the anodic film thickness forms. The different thicknesses of titanium oxide (TiO2) film cause variations in refractive index and reflective index, resulting in a desired color on the Ti surface. The most useful colors for dental application have been gold (10 V), yellow (60 to 65 V), and pink (70 to 80 V) in hue. Yellow and gold hues were mostly used in restoration or abutment areas while pink hue was used for gingival areas. The purposes of this literature review are to assess the current knowledge on the anodization process of titanium and its characteristics and to provide an overview of the literature on color formation on Ti surfaces by anodization.

1.Clark D, Levin L. In the dental implant era, why do we still bother saving teeth? Dent Traumatol. 2019;35(6):368-75.

2.Nakajima H, Okabe T. Titanium in dentistry: development and research in the U.S.A. Dent Mater J. 1996;15(2):77-90.

3.Osman RB, Swain MV. A critical review of dental implant materials with an emphasis on titanium versus zirconia. Materials (Basel). 2015;8(3):932-58.

4.Le Guehennec L, Soueidan A, Layrolle P, Amouriq Y. Surface treatments of titanium dental implants for rapid osseointegration. Dent Mater. 2007;23(7):844-54.

5.Fadeyev FA, Khrunyk YY, Belikov SV, Lugovets DV, Gubaeva OV, Karabanalov MS, et al. The adhesion of human dermal fibroblasts on anodized nanotube-layered titanium, modified for implantology application. Dokl Biol Sci. 2019;486(1):91-3.

6.Marenzi G, Spagnuolo G, Sammartino JC, Gasparro R, Rebaudi A, Salerno M. Micro-scale surface patterning of titanium dental implants by anodization in the presence of modifying salts. Materials (Basel). 2019;12(11):1-11.

7.Yeo IL. modifications of dental implant surfaces at the micro- and nano-level for enhanced osseointegration. Materials (Basel). 2019;13(1):1-16.

8.Villaca-Carvalho MFL, de Araujo JCR, Beraldo JM, Prado RFD, Moraes MEL, Manhaes Junior LRC, et al. Bioactivity of an experimental dental implant with anodized surface. J Funct Biomater. 2021;12(2):1-12.

9.Kahar S, Singh A, Patel V, Kanetkar U. Anodizing of Ti and Ti alloys for different applications: a review. IJSRD. 2020;8(5):272-6.

10.Wadhwani C, Brindis M, Kattadiyil MT, O'Brien R, Chung KH. Colorizing titanium-6aluminum-4vanadium alloy using electrochemical anodization: developing a color chart. J Prosthet Dent. 2018;119(1):26-8.

11.Llopis-Grimalt MA, Amengual-Tugores AM, Monjo M, Ramis JM. Oriented cell alignment induced by a nanostructured titanium surface enhances expression of cell differentiation markers. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2019;9(12):1-12.

12.Alipal J, Lee TC, Koshy P, Abdullah HZ, Idris MI. Evolution of anodised titanium for implant applications. Heliyon. 2021;7(7):1-29.

13.Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. On osseointegration in relation to implant surfaces. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2019;21:4-7.

14.Diamanti MV, Del Curto B, Pedeferri M. Anodic oxidation of titanium: from technical aspects to biomedical applications. J Appl Biomater Biomech. 2011;9(1):55-69.

15.Hanawa T. Zirconia versus titanium in dentistry: a review. Dent Mater J. 2020;39(1):24-36.

16.Kaluderovic MR, Schreckenbach JP, Graf HL. Titanium dental implant surfaces obtained by anodic spark deposition - From the past to the future. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016;69:1429-41.

17.Alghamdi HS, Jansen JA. The development and future of dental implants. Dent Mater J. 2020;39(2):167-72.

18.Rupp F, Liang L, Geis-Gerstorfer J, Scheideler L, Huttig F. Surface characteristics of dental implants: a review. Dent Mater. 2018;34(1):40-57.

19.Guo T, Oztug NAK, Han P, Ivanovski S, Gulati K. Old is gold: electrolyte aging influences the topography, chemistry, and bioactivity of anodized tio2 nanopores. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2021;13(7):7897-912.

20.Gulati K, Hamlet SM, Ivanovski S. Tailoring the immuno-responsiveness of anodized nano-engineered titanium implants. J Mater Chem B. 2018;6(18):2677-89.

21.Bahari ZF, Awang RAR, Hassan A. Effects of different prophylaxis procedures on titanium implant fixture: a scanning electron microscopy study. J Int Dent Med Res. 2021;14(2):494-9.

22.Kligman S, Ren Z, Chung CH, Perillo MA, Chang YC, Koo H, et al. The Impact of Dental Implant Surface Modifications on Osseointegration and Biofilm Formation. J Clin Med. 2021;10(8):1-36.

23.Prando D, Brenna A, Diamanti MV, Beretta S, Bolzoni F, Ormellese M, et al. Corrosion of titanium: Part 2: Effects of surface treatments. J Appl Biomater Funct Mater. 2018;16(1):3-13.

24.Minagar S, Wang J, Berndt CC, Ivanova EP, Wen C. Cell response of anodized nanotubes on titanium and titanium alloys. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013;101(9):2726-39.

25.Napoli G, Paura M, Vela T, Schino A. Colouring titanium alloys by anodic oxidation. Metalurgija. 2018;57:111-3.

26.Kim MH, Park K, Choi KH, Kim SH, Kim SE, Jeong CM, et al. Cell adhesion and in vivo osseointegration of sandblasted/acid etched/anodized dental implants. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(5):10324-36.

27.Gulati K, Prideaux M, Kogawa M, Lima-Marques L, Atkins GJ, Findlay DM, et al. Anodized 3D-printed titanium implants with dual micro- and nano-scale topography promote interaction with human osteoblasts and osteocyte-like cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2017;11(12):3313-25.

28.Wang T, Wang L, Lu Q, Fan Z. Changes in the esthetic, physical, and biological properties of a titanium alloy abutment treated by anodic oxidation. J Prosthet Dent. 2019;121(1):156-65.

29.Yao C, Slamovich EB, Webster TJ. Enhanced osteoblast functions on anodized titanium with nanotube-like structures. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008;85(1):157-66.

30.Wu B, Tang Y, Wang K, Zhou X, Xiang L. Nanostructured Titanium Implant Surface Facilitating Osseointegration from Protein Adsorption to Osteogenesis: The Example of TiO(2) NTAs. Int J Nanomedicine. 2022;17:1865-79.

31.Ajlouni K, Elshahawy W, Ajlouni R, Sadakah A. Color masking measurement for ceramic coating of titanium used for dental implants. J Prosthet Dent. 2018;119(3):426-31.

32.Karambakhsh A, Afshar A, Ghahramani S, Malekinejad P. Pure Commercial Titanium Color Anodizing and Corrosion Resistance. J Mater Eng Perform. 2011;20(9):1690-6.

33.Wadhwani CP, O'Brien R, Kattadiyil MT, Chung KH. Laboratory technique for coloring titanium abutments to improve esthetics. J Prosthet Dent. 2016;115(4):409-11.

34.Bressan E, Paniz G, Lops D, Corazza B, Romeo E, Favero G. Influence of abutment material on the gingival color of implant-supported all-ceramic restorations: a prospective multicenter study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2011;22(6):631-7.

35.Cosgarea R, Gasparik C, Dudea D, Culic B, Dannewitz B, Sculean A. Peri-implant soft tissue colour around titanium and zirconia abutments: a prospective randomized controlled clinical study. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2015;26(5):537-44.

36.Gil MS, Ishikawa-Nagai S, Elani HW, Da Silva JD, Kim DM, Tarnow D, et al. A prospective clinical trial to assess the optical efficacy of pink neck implants and pink abutments on soft tissue esthetics. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2017;29(6):409-15.

37.Kim A, Campbell SD, Viana MA, Knoernschild KL. Abutment Material Effect on Peri-implant Soft Tissue Color and Perceived Esthetics. J Prosthodont. 2016;25(8):634-40.

38.Wang T, Wang L, Lu Q, Fan Z. Influence of anodized titanium abutments on the esthetics of the peri-implant soft tissue: A clinical study. J Prosthet Dent. 2021;125(3):445-52.

39.Vazouras K, Gholami H, Margvelashvili-Malament M, Kim YJ, Finkelman M, Weber HP. An Esthetic Evaluation of Different Abutment Materials in the Anterior Maxilla: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Using a Crossover Design. J Prosthodont. 2022;31(8):673-80.

Vattanasup C, Kuntiyaratana T, Rungsiyakull P, Chaijareenont P. Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review: Review articles. CM Dent J [Internet]. 2023 Jul 05 [cited 2024 Jul 15];44(2):13-21. Available from:

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana, T., Rungsiyakull, P. & Chaijareenont, P. (2023). Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review. CM Dent J, 44(2), 13-21. Retrieved from:

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana Tachakorn,Rungsiyakull Pimduen and Chaijareenont Pisaisit. 2023. "Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review." CM Dent J, 44(2), 13-21.

Vattanasup, C. et al. 2023. 'Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review', CM Dent J, 44(2), 13-21. Retrieved from

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana, T., Rungsiyakull, P. and Chaijareenont, P. "Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review", CM Dent J, vol.44, no. 2, pp. 13-21, Jul. 2023.

Vattanasup, C., Kuntiyaratana, T., Rungsiyakull, P., et al. "Color Formation on Titanium Surface Treated by Anodization and the Surface Characteristics: A Review." CM Dent J, vol.44, no. 2, Jul. 2023, pp. 13-21,